The speed of the ball just after it is released from the hand. Speed is measured in MPH (miles per hour).
Higher velocity means the ball gets to the batter faster and requires quicker reaction by the batter. It will also help fielders get the ball to their target faster.
Real Life Example:
Changing pitch speeds, for example by mixing up fastballs and change-ups that have 5-10 mph difference in speed, can help to keep a batter off balance.
The average spin rate of the ball as it travels from the point of release until it is caught. Spin rate is measured in RPMs (revolutions per minute).
The higher spin rate generally means more break on the pitch; that is, more movement side-to-side or up-and-down.
Real Life Example:
All pitches fall due to gravity as they approach the plate, but riseballs don’t fall as much because of backspin and dropballs fall even more than expected because of top spin. So spin on the ball can mislead the batter about its path.
For position players, throws generally have backspin, and higher spin means the ball has more carry as it moves to the target.
The direction of the ball’s spin after release as it travels to the plate. Spin Direction is defined as the direction of motion of the leading edge of the ball (the side of the ball facing the batter as it moves to the plate).
How DK Shows It:
In the PitchTracker Softball app, Spin Direction is displayed graphically as a spinning arrow around a Softball. The arrow spins in the same way that the pitch would appear to spin from the pitcher’s perspective. In other words, we are showing spin just as you would see it after you threw the ball. This means that the “leading edge” of the ball is hidden from the pitcher’s view, so the “spin direction” is the direction of motion of the hidden side of the ball. In order to quantify the spin direction, we use a clock face. The spin direction points to a number on the clock (that is, the clock time nearest to the spinning arrow as it comes into view from the leading edge of the ball is the spin direction for that pitch).
Ball spin is what causes the ball to break due to aerodynamic forces acting on it during flight. The direction of break is the same as the spin direction. The amount of break is dependent on the spin rate, so knowing both of these values tells you about both the direction and amount of break that you can expect from your pitches.
Real Life Example:
A riseball has backspin, meaning that as the ball moves away from you, the leading edge (side toward the catcher) is moving upward as it spins. We define the direction using a clock face. 12:00 is the top of the clock face, so an ideal fastball, whose spin direction is straight up, would be measured as a 12:00 spin direction.
A fastball and dropball, on the other hand, have top spin, meaning that the leading edge of the ball moves downward, toward 6:00 on the clock. So an ideal dropball spin direction is measured as 6:00.
Your actual riseball and dropball (and other pitches) probably have spin directions that are slightly different from 12:00 or 6:00, which is fine. That makes you unique as a pitcher. Knowing the spin direction of each of your pitches helps you understand how they actually break.
This is the total spin divided by the active spin (or the spin that contributes to the movement of the pitch). Spin efficiency is not necessarily a higher is better type of metric. Certain pitch types will be effective even at lower Spin Efficiency percentages.
The difference in horizontal location at the plate from a pitch that was thrown with no spin compared to the actual pitch that was thrown.
The difference in vertical location at the plate from a pitch that was thrown with no spin compared to the actual pitch that was thrown.